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New Features, Bug Fixes, Compatibility Considerations

HEV Input Power-Split Reference Application: Use fully assembled model for HIL testing, tradeoff analysis, and control parameter optimization of a power-split hybrid like the Toyota Prius

Powertrain Blockset™ includes a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) input power-split reference application that you can use for design tradeoff analysis and component sizing, control parameter optimization, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing for vehicles like the Toyota® Prius®. For more information, see Explore the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Input Power-Split Reference Application.

In addition to the HEV input power-split reference application, the Powertrain Blockset includes an HEV multimode reference application. Prior to R2017b, the HEV multimode reference application was known as the HEV reference application. For more information, see Explore the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Multimode Reference Application.

CI and SI Engine Dynamometer Reference Applications: Resize engines and recalibrate controllers based on desired power and number of cylinders

Based on a desired maximum engine power and the number of cylinders, you can resize the compression-ignition (CI) engine and spark-ignition (SI) engine models and recalibrate the controllers.

To resize the engines, use the dynamometer reference applications. After you open the reference application, click Resize Engine and Recalibrate Controller. In the dialog box, enter values for:

  • Desired maximum power

  • Desired number of cylinders

After you apply the changes, the reference application:

  • Resizes the dynamic engine and engine calibration parameters. The Recalibrate Engine dialog box provides the updated engine performance characteristics based on the resized calibration parameters.

  • Recalibrates the controller and mapped engine model to match the resized dynamic engine.

You can use the variants in other applications, for example, in vehicle projects that require a larger engine model.

For resizing examples, see:

New Drivetrain and Propulsion Blocks: Model drivetrain coupling, bidirectional DC-to-DC energy conversion, and flux-based PMSM motors​

This table summarizes the blocks that are available with R2017b.

Split Torsional Compliance

Implements parallel spring-damper coupling between shafts. Use the block to model the mechanical power transfer between common drivetrain elements such as motors, planetary gears, and clutches.

Bidirectional DC-DCImplements a DC-to-DC converter that supports bidirectional boost and buck (lower) operation. Depending on your battery system configuration, the voltage might not be at a potential that is required by electrical system components such has inverters and motors. You can use the block to boost or buck the voltage.
Flux-Based PMSM

Implements a flux-based, three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with a tabular-based electromotive force.

Flux-Based PM Controller

Implements a torque-based, field-oriented controller for a flux-based PMSM.

Electric Motor Controllers: Calculate inverter electrical losses

You can configure these electric motor controller blocks to calculate electrical losses:

Previously, you could configure only the Mapped Motor block to calculate electrical loss.

To specify the electrical loss calculation, on the block Electrical Losses tab, for Parameterize losses by, select one of these options.

SettingBlock Implementation
Single efficiency measurement

Electrical loss calculated using a constant value for inverter efficiency

Tabulated loss data

Electrical loss calculated as a function of motor speeds and load torques

Tabulated efficiency data

Electrical loss calculated using inverter efficiency that is a function of motor speeds and load torques

Flux-Based Motor Parameterization: Generate parameters for Flux-Based PMSM and Flux-Based PM Controller blocks​

This version includes workflows that you can follow to generate parameters for the flux-based motor blocks. See Generate Parameters for Flux-Based Blocks.

Longitudinal Wheel Block: Model tires using Magic Formula longitudinal slip, vertical motion, and external friction input

The Longitudinal Wheel block includes these enhancements.


Longitudinal force as a function of wheel slip relative to the road surface. Implemented using coefficients fit from experimental data or derived using Magic Formula equations 4.E9 through 4.E18 in Tire and Vehicle Dynamics.

Set Longitudinal Force to Magic Formula pure longitudinal slip.

Vertical motion that depends on wheel mass stiffness, damping, and pressure.

Set Vertical Motion to Mapped stiffness and damping.

To specify the ground displacement, on the Vertical pane, do either of the following:

  • Select Input ground displacement to create input port Gnd.

  • Specify a Ground displacement, Gndz parameter.

Input tire pressure for Magic Formula, vertical motion, and rolling resistance calculations.

To create the TirePrs port:

  • Set one of these parameters:

    • Longitudinal Force to Magic Formula pure longitudinal slip.

    • Rolling Resistance to Pressure and velocity or Magic Formula.

    • Vertical Motion to Mapped stiffness and damping.

  • On the Wheel Dynamics pane, select Input tire pressure.

Input scaling factor for longitudinal friction calculation.

To create the lam_mux port, select Input friction scale factor.


[1] Pacejka, H. B. Tire and Vehicle Dynamics. 3rd ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: SAE and Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012.

CI Core Engine Block: Customize fuel injection with fuel mass input

To accommodate multiple fuel injection events during hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, you can provide the CI Core Engine block with these fuel-related input vectors:

  • FuelMass — Fuel mass per injection

  • Soi — Fuel injection timing

The CiEngineCore.slx model includes the Fuel System subsystem and the updated CI Core Engine block. The Fuel System subsystem contains a fuel delivery command subsystem. These reference applications and templates use CiEngineCore.slx:

  • Conventional Vehicle Reference Application

  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle Reference Application

  • CI Engine Dynamometer Reference Application

  • CI Engine Project Template

Compatibility Considerations

In previous releases, the CI Core Engine block calculated the fuel mass flow rate using fuel injector pulse-width and fuel injection main timing block input. In this release, the InjPw and FuelMainSoi scalar input ports are replaced by FuelMass and Soi vector input ports. Models that have InjPw or FuelMainSoi signals input to the CI Core Engine block might have disconnected line errors. Consider replacing the block with this version.

Combustion Engine Reference Applications: Use control actuator IO during HIL testing

To facilitate hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing of actuator and sensor dynamics, you can use control actuator IO for these internal combustion engine reference applications:

  • Conventional Vehicle Reference Application

  • CI Engine Dynamometer Reference Application

  • SI Engine Dynamometer Reference Application

Specifically, the compression-ignition (CI) and spark-ignition (SI) engines available with the reference applications use low-pass filters to model these control actuators:

  • Variable compression ratio

  • Variable intake valve lift

  • Variable intake runner length

  • Intake manifold flap

  • Swirl valve

Battery Blocks: Input rated capacity at nominal temperature

To simulate effects such as aging, you can configure these blocks to input rated capacity at nominal temperature:

Compatibility Considerations

Models saved in previous releases might have disconnected line errors. Reconnect the s or consider replacing the blocks with this version.

Mapped Engine Blocks: Model turbocharger lag

To simulate turbocharger lag with the mapped engine blocks, on the block parameter dialog box, select Include turbocharger lag effect. To model the lag, the blocks use a first-order system with a time constant.

  • Mapped CI Engine — At low torque, boost is not required to provide sufficient air flow. When the requested fuel mass requires boost, the block uses a time constant to determine the maximum fuel mass per injection.

  • Mapped SI Engine — During throttle control, the time constant models the manifold filling and emptying dynamics. When the torque request requires a turbocharger boost, the block uses a larger time constant to represent the turbocharger lag.

Conventional and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Reference Applications: Idle the engine until catalyst light-off

To simulate catalyst light-off before moving the vehicle with a pedal command, you can idle the conventional and hybrid electric vehicle engines at the beginning of a drive cycle. In the reference applications, the Longitudinal Driver subsystem includes an ignition switch signal profile, IgSw. The engine controller uses the ignition switch signal to start both the engine and a catalyst light-off timer.

The catalyst light-off timer overrides the engine stop-start (ESS) stop function control while the catalyst light-off timer is counting up. During the simulation, after the IgSw down-edge time reaches the catalyst light-off time CatLightOffTime, normal ESS operation resumes. If there is no torque command before the simulation reaches the EngStopTime, the ESS shuts down the engine.

To control ESS and catalyst light-off, use these engine controller calibration parameters:

  • EngStopStartEnable — Enables ESS. To disable ESS, set the value to false.

  • CatLightOffTime — Engine idle time from engine start to catalyst light-off.

  • EngStopTime — ESS engine run time after driver model torque request cut-off.

  • IgSw — Starts and idles the engine. Set ignition switch profile to 'on' inside driver model.

These parameters are in the engine controller model workspace.

Combustion Engine Torque: Independent friction and pumping loss calculation

The compression-ignition (CI) and spark-ignition (SI) torque structure calculation independently accounts for pumping and friction losses. Previously, the torque calculation combined the losses.

Combustion EngineDescriptionImpacted Blocks

Friction Loss

Pumping Loss


CI Engine Torque Structure Model

CI Controller

CI Core Engine

Function of:

  • Engine coolant temperature

  • Injected fuel mass

  • Engine speed

Function of:

  • Injected fuel mass

  • Engine speed


SI Engine Torque Structure Model

SI Controller

SI Core Engine

Function of:

  • Engine coolant temperature

  • Engine load

  • Engine speed

Function of:

  • Engine load

  • Engine speed

Compatibility Considerations

Models saved in previous releases might have disconnected line errors. Reconnect the signals or consider replacing the blocks with this version.

Ports and Signals: Consistent names and units across library blocks

For consistency and readability, the Powertrain Blockset includes these updates for the library blocks.


Input and Output port names

Consistent Input and Output port names across all blocks.

Output port Info bus signal names

Consistent Info bus signal names across all blocks.

Input and Output port units

SI units for block Input and Output ports. To display the signal units in your model, select Display > Signals & Ports > Port Units.

The block documentation includes the names and units for the Input and Output ports and Info bus signals.

Compatibility Considerations

Models saved in previous releases might have disconnected line errors. Reconnect the signals or consider replacing the blocks with this version.