I don't know really if Matlab is used for such tasks, but haven't you tried Simulink for easier handling of the problem? Such graphic tasks are made easy using the virtual reality modeling language (VRML). There is a reference model that comes with Simulink in
which exactly uses the idea you mentioned, and can be easily edited to include the texture of the sun as the image you posted. The rest, particularly the lighting of the planets, is all pre-set.