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tiledlayout

创建分块图布局

说明

示例

tiledlayout(m,n) 创建分块图布局,用于显示当前图窗中的多个绘图。该布局有固定的 m×n 图块排列,最多可显示 m*n 个绘图。如果没有图窗,MATLAB® 会创建一个图窗并将布局放入其中。如果当前图窗包含一个现有坐标区或布局,MATLAB 会将其替换为新布局。

分块图布局包含覆盖整个图窗或父容器的不可见图块网格。每个图块可以包含一个用于显示绘图的坐标区。创建布局后,调用 nexttile 函数以将坐标区对象放置到布局中。然后调用绘图函数在该坐标区中绘图。

示例

tiledlayout('flow') 指定布局的 'flow' 图块排列。最初,只有一个空图块填充整个布局。当您调用 nexttile 时,布局都会根据需要进行调整以适应新坐标区,同时保持所有图块的纵横比约为 4:3。

示例

tiledlayout(___,Name,Value) 使用一个或多个名称-值对组参数指定布局的其他选项。请在所有其他输入参数之后指定这些选项。例如,tiledlayout(2,2,'TileSpacing','compact') 创建一个 2×2 布局,图块之间采用最小间距。有关属性列表,请参阅 TiledChartLayout 属性

示例

tiledlayout(parent,___) 在指定的父容器中而不是在当前图窗中创建布局。请在所有其他输入参数之前指定父容器。

示例

t = tiledlayout(___) 返回 TiledChartLayout 对象。创建布局后,使用 t 配置布局的属性。

示例

全部折叠

创建一个 2×2 分块图布局,并调用 peaks 函数以获取预定义曲面的坐标。通过调用 nexttile 函数,在第一个图块中创建一个坐标区对象。然后调用 surf 函数以在坐标区中绘图。对其他三个图块使用不同绘图函数重复该过程。

tiledlayout(2,2);
[X,Y,Z] = peaks(20);

% Tile 1
nexttile
surf(X,Y,Z)

% Tile 2
nexttile
contour(X,Y,Z)

% Tile 3
nexttile
imagesc(Z)

% Tile 4
nexttile
plot3(X,Y,Z)

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type surface. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour. Axes 3 contains an object of type image. Axes 4 contains 20 objects of type line.

创建四个坐标向量:xy1y2y3。用 'flow' 参数调用 tiledlayout 函数,以创建可容纳任意数量的坐标区的分块图布局。调用 nexttile 函数以创建第一个坐标区。然后在第一个图块中绘制 y1。第一个图填充整个布局。

x = linspace(0,30);
y1 = sin(x/2);
y2 = sin(x/3);
y3 = sin(x/4);

% Plot into first tile three times
tiledlayout('flow')
nexttile
plot(x,y1)

Figure contains an axes. The axes contains an object of type line.

创建第二个图块和坐标区,并绘制到坐标区中。

nexttile
plot(x,y2)

Figure contains 2 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line.

重复该过程以创建第三个绘图。

nexttile
plot(x,y3)

Figure contains 3 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 contains an object of type line.

重复该过程以创建第四个绘图。这次,通过在绘制 y1 后调用 hold on 在同一坐标区中绘制全部三条线。

nexttile
plot(x,y1)
hold on
plot(x,y2)
plot(x,y3)
hold off

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 contains an object of type line. Axes 4 contains 3 objects of type line.

创建五个坐标向量:xy1y2y3y4。然后调用 tiledlayout 函数来创建 2×2 布局,并指定返回参数来存储 TileChartLayout 对象。在调用 plot 函数之前,调用 nexttile 函数以在下一个空图块中创建坐标区对象。

x = linspace(0,30);
y1 = sin(x);
y2 = sin(x/2);
y3 = sin(x/3);
y4 = sin(x/4);
t = tiledlayout(2,2);

% Tile 1
nexttile
plot(x,y1)

% Tile 2
nexttile
plot(x,y2)

% Tile 3
nexttile
plot(x,y3)

% Tile 4
nexttile
plot(x,y4)

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 contains an object of type line. Axes 4 contains an object of type line.

通过将 TileSpacing 属性设置为 'compact' 来减小图块的间距。然后通过将 Padding 属性设置为 'compact',减小布局边缘和图窗边缘之间的空间。

t.TileSpacing = 'compact';
t.Padding = 'compact';

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 contains an object of type line. Axes 4 contains an object of type line.

创建一个 2×2 分块图布局 t。指定 TileSpacing 名称-值对组参数,以最小化图块之间的空间。然后在每个图块中创建一个带标题的绘图。

t = tiledlayout(2,2,'TileSpacing','Compact');

% Tile 1
nexttile
plot(rand(1,20))
title('Sample 1')

% Tile 2
nexttile
plot(rand(1,20))
title('Sample 2')

% Tile 3
nexttile
plot(rand(1,20))
title('Sample 3')

% Tile 4
nexttile
plot(rand(1,20))
title('Sample 4')

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 with title Sample 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 with title Sample 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 with title Sample 3 contains an object of type line. Axes 4 with title Sample 4 contains an object of type line.

通过将 t 传递给 titlexlabelylabel 函数,显示共享标题和轴标签。

title(t,'Size vs. Distance')
xlabel(t,'Distance (mm)')
ylabel(t,'Size (mm)')

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 with title Sample 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 with title Sample 2 contains an object of type line. Axes 3 with title Sample 3 contains an object of type line. Axes 4 with title Sample 4 contains an object of type line.

在图窗中创建一个面板。然后通过将面板对象指定为 tiledlayout 函数的第一个参数,在面板中创建一个分块图布局。在每个图块中显示一个绘图。

p = uipanel('Position',[.1 .2 .8 .6]);
t = tiledlayout(p,2,1);

% Tile 1
nexttile(t)
stem(1:13)

% Tile 2
nexttile(t)
bar([10 22 31 43 52])

Figure contains 2 axes and another object of type uipanel. Axes 1 contains an object of type stem. Axes 2 contains an object of type bar.

调用 tiledlayout 函数以创建 2×1 分块图布局。带一个输出参数调用 nexttile 函数以存储坐标区。然后绘制到坐标区中,并将 x 和 y 轴的颜色设置为红色。在第二个图块中重复该过程。

t = tiledlayout(2,1);

% First tile
ax1 = nexttile;
plot([1 2 3 4 5],[11 6 10 4 18]);
ax1.XColor = [1 0 0];
ax1.YColor = [1 0 0];

% Second tile
ax2 = nexttile;
plot([1 2 3 4 5],[5 1 12 9 2],'o');
ax2.XColor = [1 0 0];
ax2.YColor = [1 0 0];

Figure contains 2 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line.

要从特定位置开始放置坐标区对象,请指定图块编号和跨度值。

scoresstrikes 定义为包含四场保龄球联赛数据的向量。然后创建一个 3×3 分块图布局,并显示五个条形图,其中显示每个团队的击球次数。

scores = [444 460 380 388 389
          387 366 500 467 460
          365 451 611 426 495
          548 412 452 471 402];

strikes = [9  6  5  7  5
           6  4  8 10  7
           4  7 16  9  9
           10  9  8  8  9];
       
t = tiledlayout(3,3);

% Team 1
nexttile
bar([1 2 3 4],strikes(:,1))
title('Team 1 Strikes')

% Team 2
nexttile
bar([1 2 3 4],strikes(:,2))
title('Team 2 Strikes')

% Team 3
nexttile
bar([1 2 3 4],strikes(:,3))
title('Team 3 Strikes')

% Team 4
nexttile
bar([1 2 3 4],strikes(:,4))
title('Team 4 Strikes')

% Team 5
nexttile(7)
bar([1 2 3 4],strikes(:,5))
title('Team 5 Strikes')

Figure contains 5 axes. Axes 1 with title Team 1 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 2 with title Team 2 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 3 with title Team 3 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 4 with title Team 4 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 5 with title Team 5 Strikes contains an object of type bar.

显示一个带有图例的较大绘图。调用 nexttile 函数以将坐标区的左上角放在第五个图块中,并使坐标区占据图块的两行和两列。绘制所有团队的分数。将 x 轴配置为显示四个刻度,并为每个轴添加标签。然后在布局顶部添加一个共享标题。

nexttile(5,[2 2]);
plot([1 2 3 4],scores,'-.')
labels = {'Team 1','Team 2','Team 3','Team 4','Team 5'};
legend(labels,'Location','northwest')

% Configure ticks and axis labels
xticks([1 2 3 4])
xlabel('Game')
ylabel('Score')

% Add layout title
title(t,'April Bowling League Data')

Figure contains 6 axes. Axes 1 with title Team 1 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 2 with title Team 2 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 3 with title Team 3 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 4 with title Team 4 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 5 with title Team 5 Strikes contains an object of type bar. Axes 6 contains 5 objects of type line. These objects represent Team 1, Team 2, Team 3, Team 4, Team 5.

创建 1×2 分块图布局。在第一个图块中,显示包含连接地图上两个城市的线的地理图。在第二个图块中,在极坐标中创建一个散点图。

tiledlayout(1,2)

% Display geographic plot
nexttile
geoplot([47.62 61.20],[-122.33 -149.90],'g-*')

% Display polar plot
nexttile
theta = pi/4:pi/4:2*pi;
rho = [19 6 12 18 16 11 15 15];
polarscatter(theta,rho)

nexttile 输出参数的一个有用的用途体现在您想调整前一个图块中的内容时。例如,您可能决定要重新配置先前绘图中使用的颜色图。

创建一个 2×2 分块图布局。调用 peaks 函数以获取预定义曲面的坐标。然后在每个图块中创建一个不同的曲面图。

tiledlayout(2,2);
[X,Y,Z] = peaks(20);

% Tile 1
nexttile
surf(X,Y,Z)

% Tile 2
nexttile
contour(X,Y,Z)

% Tile 3
nexttile
imagesc(Z)

% Tile 4
nexttile
plot3(X,Y,Z)

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type surface. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour. Axes 3 contains an object of type image. Axes 4 contains 20 objects of type line.

要更改第三个图块中的颜色图,请获取该图块中的坐标区。通过指定图块编号调用 nexttile 函数,并返回坐标区输出参数。然后将坐标区传递给 colormap 函数。

ax = nexttile(3);
colormap(ax,cool)

Figure contains 4 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type surface. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour. Axes 3 contains an object of type image. Axes 4 contains 20 objects of type line.

创建一个 2×3 分块图布局,其中包含两个分别位于单独图块中的图,以及一个跨两行两列的图。

t = tiledlayout(2,3);
[X,Y,Z] = peaks;

% Tile 1
nexttile
contour(X,Y,Z)

% Span across two rows and columns
nexttile([2 2])
contourf(X,Y,Z)

% Last tile
nexttile
imagesc(Z)

Figure contains 3 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type contour. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour. Axes 3 contains an object of type image.

要更改跨图块坐标区的颜色图,请将图块位置标识为坐标区左上角图块所在的位置。在本例中,左上角在第二个图块中。使用 2 作为图块位置调用 nexttile 函数,并指定输出参数以返回该位置的坐标区对象。然后将坐标区传递给 colormap 函数。

ax = nexttile(2);
colormap(ax,hot)

Figure contains 3 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type contour. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour. Axes 3 contains an object of type image.

加载 patients 数据集,并基于变量子集创建一个表。然后创建一个 2×2 分块图布局。在第一个图块中显示散点图,在第二个图块中显示热图,并显示跨底部两个图块的堆叠图。

load patients
tbl = table(Diastolic,Smoker,Systolic,Height,Weight,SelfAssessedHealthStatus);
tiledlayout(2,2)

% Scatter plot
nexttile
scatter(tbl.Height,tbl.Weight)

% Heatmap
nexttile
heatmap(tbl,'Smoker','SelfAssessedHealthStatus','Title','Smoker''s Health');

% Stacked plot
nexttile([1 2])
stackedplot(tbl,{'Systolic','Diastolic'});

Figure contains an axes and other objects of type . The axes contains an object of type scatter. The chart of type heatmap has title Smoker's Health.

调用 nexttile,并将图块编号指定为 1 以使该图块中的坐标区成为当前坐标区。用散点直方图替换该图块的内容。

nexttile(1)
scatterhistogram(tbl,'Height','Weight');

Figure contains objects of type . The chart of type heatmap has title Smoker's Health.

当您要在两个或多个图之间共享颜色栏或图例时,可以将其放置在一个单独图块中。

在分块图布局中创建 peaksmembrane 数据集的填充等高线图。

Z1 = peaks;
Z2 = membrane;
tiledlayout(2,1);
nexttile
contourf(Z1)
nexttile
contourf(Z2)

Figure contains 2 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type contour. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour.

添加一个颜色栏,并将其移至 east 图块。

cb = colorbar;
cb.Layout.Tile = 'east';

Figure contains 2 axes. Axes 1 contains an object of type contour. Axes 2 contains an object of type contour.

有时,您可能需要在调用绘图函数之前手动创建坐标区。在创建坐标区时,请将 parent 参数指定为分块图布局。然后通过对坐标区设置 Layout 属性来定位坐标区。

创建分块图布局 t 并指定 'flow' 图块排列。在前三个图块中各显示一个绘图。

t = tiledlayout('flow');
nexttile
plot(rand(1,10));
nexttile
plot(rand(1,10));
nexttile
plot(rand(1,10));

通过调用 geoaxes 函数创建一个地理坐标区对象 gax,并将 t 指定为 parent 参数。默认情况下,坐标区进入第一个图块,因此通过将 gax.Layout.Tile 设置为 4 将其移至第四个图块。通过将 gax.Layout.TileSpan 设置为 [2 3],使坐标区占据图块的 2×3 区域。

gax = geoaxes(t);
gax.Layout.Tile = 4;
gax.Layout.TileSpan = [2 3];

调用 geoplot 函数。然后为坐标区配置地图中心和缩放级别。

geoplot(gax,[47.62 61.20],[-122.33 -149.90],'g-*')
gax.MapCenter = [47.62 -122.33];
gax.ZoomLevel = 2;

输入参数

全部折叠

行数,指定为正整数。

示例: tiledlayout(2,3) 创建一个分块图布局,该布局有两行三列的图块。

列数,指定为正整数。

示例: tiledlayout(2,3) 创建一个分块图布局,该布局有两行三列的图块。

父容器,指定为 FigurePanelTabTiledChartLayoutGridLayout 对象。

名称-值对组参数

指定可选的、以逗号分隔的 Name,Value 对组参数。Name 为参数名称,Value 为对应的值。Name 必须放在引号中。您可采用任意顺序指定多个名称-值对组参数,如 Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN 所示。

示例: tiledlayout(2,2,'TileSpacing','compact') 创建 2×2 布局,各图块之间采用最小间距。

注意

此处所列的属性只是一部分。有关完整列表,请参阅 TiledChartLayout 属性

图块间距,指定为 'loose''compact''tight''none'。使用此属性控制图块之间的间距。

下表显示每个值如何影响 2×2 布局的外观。

外观

'loose'

Tiled chart layout with 'loose' tile spacing.

'compact'

Tiled chart layout with 'compact' tile spacing.

'tight'

Tiled chart layout with 'tight' tile spacing.

'none'

Tiled chart layout with 'none' tile spacing.

布局周围的填充,指定为 'loose''compact''tight'。不管此属性使用哪个值,布局都会为所有装饰元素(如轴标签)提供空间。

下表显示每个值如何影响 2×2 布局的外观。

外观

'loose'

Tiled chart layout with 'loose' padding.

'compact'

Tiled chart layout with 'compact' padding.

'tight'

Tiled chart layout with 'tight' padding.

兼容性考虑

全部展开

R2021a 中的行为有变化

另请参阅

函数

属性

在 R2019b 中推出