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Machine and Deep Learning Classification Using Signal Feature Extraction Objects

This examples uses signal feature extraction objects to extract multidomain features that can be used to identify faulty bearing signals in mechanical systems. Feature extraction objects enable the computation of multiple features in an efficient way by reducing the number of times signals are transformed into a particular domain.


Rotating machines that use bearings are widely employed in various industrial applications, such as medical devices, food processing, semiconductor, paper making, and aircraft components. These industrial systems often suffer from electric current discharged through the bearings that can result in motor bearing failure within a few months of system startup. Failure to detect these issues in a timely manner can cause significant downtime in system operations. In addition to requiring regularly scheduled maintenance, the industrial system using rotating machines needs continuous monitoring for bearing current detection to ensure safety, reliability, efficiency, and performance.

Significant research work has been dedicated to automatic identification of faulty bearings in industrial systems. Recently, machine and deep learning algorithms have been used in fault analysis research [1]. Reliable, effective, and efficient feature extraction techniques play a key role in AI-based fault diagnosis performance. As the bearing current is caused by variable speed conditions, the fault frequencies can sweep up or down in the frequency range over time as the speed varies. In other words, bearing vibration signals are nonstationary in nature. The nonstationary characteristics can be captured well by various time-frequency representations. Combined features extracted from the time, frequency, and time-frequency representations of the signals can be used to improve the fault detection performance of systems.

Download and Prepare the Data

The data set contains acceleration signals collected from rotating machines in bearing test rig and real-world machines such as oil pump bearing, intermediate speed bearing, and a planet bearing. There are 34 files in total. The signals in the files are sampled at fs = 25 Hz. The file names describe the signals they contain:

  • healthy.mat Healthy signals

  • innerfault.mat Signals with inner race faults

  • outerfault.mat Signals with outer race faults

Download the data files into your temporary directory, whose location is specified by the tempdir command in MATLAB®. If you want to place the data files in a folder different from tempdir, change the directory name in the subsequent instructions. Create a signalDatastore object to access the data in the files and obtain the labels.

% Download the data
dataURL = '';
datasetFolder = fullfile(tempdir,'rollingBearingDataset');
zipFile = fullfile(tempdir,'');
if ~exist(datasetFolder,'dir')

% Create a datastore using the support files
sds = signalDatastore(datasetFolder);

% Obtain the labels from the filenames in the datastore
labels = filenames2labels(sds,ExtractBefore='_');

Analyze one instance of a healthy signal, a signal with inner race faults, and a signal with outer race faults. The spectrogram for the healthy signal shows that the frequency content over time is more concentrated in the low-frequency range. In contrast, the spectrograms for the faulty signals are spread out in both the low-frequency range and in the high-frequency range. These characteristics can be captured by features extracted from spectrograms.

healthySignal = read(subset(sds,1));
innerRaceFaultSignal = read(subset(sds,13));
outerRaceFaultSignal = read(subset(sds,34));

fs = 25;

tiledlayout vertical
xlabel("Time (seconds)")
title("Healthy Signal")
xlabel("Time (seconds)")
title("Inner Race Fault Signal")
xlabel("Time (seconds)")
title("Outer Race Fault Signal")

Figure contains 3 axes objects. Axes object 1 with title Healthy Signal, xlabel Time (seconds) contains an object of type line. Axes object 2 with title Inner Race Fault Signal, xlabel Time (seconds) contains an object of type line. Axes object 3 with title Outer Race Fault Signal, xlabel Time (seconds) contains an object of type line.

tiledlayout vertical
title("Healthy Signal Spectrogram")
title("Inner Race Fault Signal Spectrogram")
title("Outer Race Fault Signal Spectrogram")

Figure contains 3 axes objects. Axes object 1 with title Healthy Signal Spectrogram, xlabel Time (hours), ylabel Frequency (Hz) contains an object of type image. Axes object 2 with title Inner Race Fault Signal Spectrogram, xlabel Time (hours), ylabel Frequency (Hz) contains an object of type image. Axes object 3 with title Outer Race Fault Signal Spectrogram, xlabel Time (hours), ylabel Frequency (Hz) contains an object of type image.

Feature Extraction

In this section you extract features from the signals and implement machine learning and deep learning solutions to classify signals as healthy, having inner race faults, or having outer race faults. Use the signalTimeFeatureExtractor, signalFrequencyFeatureExtractor, and signalTimeFrequencyFeatureExtractor objects to extract features from all the signals.

  • For time domain, use root-mean-square value, impulse factor, standard deviation, and clearance factor as features.

  • For frequency domain, use median frequency, band power, power bandwidth, and peak amplitude of the power spectral density (PSD) as features.

  • For time-frequency domain, use these features from the signal spectrogram: spectral kurtosis [4], spectral skewness, spectral flatness, and time-frequency ridges [5]. Additionally, use the scale-averaged wavelet scalogram as a feature.

Create a time-domain feature extractor and obtain a transform datastore that extracts the time-domain features from the signalDatastore.

timeSVMFE = signalTimeFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    RMS=true, ...
    ImpulseFactor=true, ...
    StandardDeviation=true, ...

timeSVMFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)timeSVMFE.extract(x(:)));

Create a frequency-domain feature extractor and obtain a transform datastore that extracts the frequency-domain features from the signalDatastore.

 freqSVMFE = signalFrequencyFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    MedianFrequency=true, ...
    BandPower=true, ...
    PowerBandwidth=true, ...

freqSVMFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)freqSVMFE.extract(x(:)));

Create a time-frequency domain feature extractor and obtain a transform datastore that extracts the time-frequency domain features from the signalDatastore.

 timeFreqSVMFE = signalTimeFrequencyFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    SpectralKurtosis=true, ...
    SpectralSkewness=true, ...
    SpectralFlatness=true, ...
    TFRidges=true, ...

timeFreqSVMFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)timeFreqSVMFE.extract(x(:)));

Train an SVM Classifier Using Extracted Features

Extract features for every signal in the dataset. The readall function reads and computes features for all signals in the datastores. If you have Parallel Computing Toolbox™, specify UseParallel as true to read the files and extract the features in parallel. Concatenate the extracted features to obtain a feature matrix. You can use the feature matrix and its corresponding labels to train a multiclass SVM classifier.

timeSVMFeatures = readall(timeSVMFeatureDs,UseParallel=true);

freqSVMFeatures = readall(freqSVMFeatureDs,UseParallel=true);

timeFreqSVMFeatures = readall(timeFreqSVMFeatureDs,UseParallel=true);

featureTable = array2table([timeSVMFeatures freqSVMFeatures timeFreqSVMFeatures]);
     Var1       Var2       Var3      Var4      Var5      Var6         Var7        Var8      Var9     Var10     Var11     Var12     Var13     Var14     Var15     Var16     Var17     Var18     Var19     Var20 
    _______    _______    ______    ______    ______    _______    __________    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

    0.89042    0.87979    7.7551    6.5588    3.4342    0.79563    0.00031429    1.6299    3.1851    2.9578    2.7979    3.5073    3.3425    3.2894    3.0054    2.9904     3.615    3.4075    3.1688    2.8402
    0.86631    0.86443    6.9682    5.9044    3.4533    0.74962    0.00032232     1.425    3.0094    2.9463    2.9195    2.7414    2.9711    3.2231    3.2464    3.0089    3.0951    2.7609    2.6541      3.34
    0.87483    0.87293    7.2224    6.1184    3.4211    0.76698    0.00031299    2.2829    2.8604    2.8134    2.8711    3.1266    2.9899     2.894    2.6456    2.6727    2.9572    2.6347    2.6946    2.7945
    0.89696    0.89521    6.5476    5.5462    3.3956    0.80326    0.00031824    2.1562    2.9741     3.028    2.9558    3.5788    3.2329    2.8973    2.8414    3.3408    3.6882    3.2481    2.9149    3.3298
    0.88766    0.87685    7.2062    6.1101    3.4234    0.78838    0.00031655    1.5097    3.1028    3.0025    2.7755    3.1872    3.0653    3.0677    3.1056    2.7412    2.9906    2.9219    2.9751    3.0733
    0.88632    0.87554    6.7042    5.6771     3.443    0.78578    0.00032104    1.5016    3.1885    2.9341     3.117    3.1114    3.1284    2.8476      3.21    2.7989    3.1023    2.7537     3.077    2.8268
    0.89654    0.88599    6.8998    5.8484    3.4144     0.8064    0.00031895    1.7236    3.2226    3.3195     3.093    3.0102    3.0166    3.1309    3.2455     3.374    3.3268    3.2598    3.0828    3.1874
    0.86256    0.85424    7.1177    6.0223    3.5046    0.74237    0.00030795    0.8972    2.8081    2.8225    2.7826    3.2795    3.6573    2.9128    2.6972     3.029    3.0403    3.1295    2.5442    3.3955

Split the feature table into training and testing feature data sets. Obtain their corresponding labels. For reproducible results, reset the random seed generator.

rng default

cvp = cvpartition(labels,Holdout=0.25);

trainingPredictors = featureTable(,:);
trainingResponse = labels(,:);

testPredictors = featureTable(cvp.test,:);
testResponse = labels(cvp.test,:);

Use the training features to train a multiclass SVM classifier.

SVMModel = fitcecoc(trainingPredictors,trainingResponse);

Use the test features to identify the faulty signals and analyze the accuracy of the classifier.

predictedLabels = predict(SVMModel,testPredictors);

cm = confusionchart(testResponse,predictedLabels, ...
     ColumnSummary="column-normalized", RowSummary="row-normalized");

Figure contains an object of type ConfusionMatrixChart.

Calculate the classifier accuracy.

accuracy = trace(cm.NormalizedValues)/sum(cm.NormalizedValues,"all");
fprintf("The classification accuracy on the test partition is %2.1f%%",accuracy*100)
The classification accuracy on the test partition is 100.0%

Train an LSTM Network Using Features

Each signal in the signalDatastore object sds has around 150,000 samples. Window each signal into 500-sample frames and extract multidomain features from it. This results in a sequence of features over time that has lower dimension than the original signal. The dimension reduction helps the LSTM network to train faster. The workflow follows these steps:

  • Split the signals in the signalDatastore object into frames.

  • For each signal, extract the features from all three domains and concatenate them.

  • Split the signal datastore into training and test datastores. Get the labels for each set.

  • Train the recurrent deep learning network using the labels and feature matrices.

  • Classify the signals using the trained network.

Create a time-domain feature extractor. Set FrameSize of the feature extractor to 500 to achieve the signal framing.

timeDLFE = signalTimeFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    FrameSize=500, ...
    RMS=true, ...
    ImpulseFactor=true, ...
    StandardDeviation=true, ...

Create a frequency-domain feature extractor.

freqDLFE = signalFrequencyFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    FrameSize=500, ...
    MedianFrequency=true, ...
    BandPower=true, ...
    PowerBandwidth=true, ...

Create a time-frequency domain feature extractor.

timeFreqDLFE = signalTimeFrequencyFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=25, ...
    FrameSize=500, ...
    SpectralKurtosis=true, ...
    SpectralSkewness=true, ...
    SpectralFlatness=true, ...
    TFRidges=true, ...


Split the labels into training and testing sets. Use 70% of the labels for training set and the remaining 30% for testing data. Use splitlabels to obtain the desired partition of the labels. This guarantees that each split data set contains similar label proportions as the entire data set. Obtain the corresponding datastore subsets from the signalDatastore. Reset the random number generator for reproducible results.

rng default

splitIndices = splitlabels(labels,0.7,"randomized");
trainIdx = splitIndices{1};
ans=3×3 table
        Label         Count    Percent
    ______________    _____    _______

    HealthySignal       8      33.333 
    InnerRaceFault      5      20.833 
    OuterRaceFault     11      45.833 

testIdx = splitIndices{2};
ans=3×3 table
        Label         Count    Percent
    ______________    _____    _______

    HealthySignal       4        40   
    InnerRaceFault      2        20   
    OuterRaceFault      4        40   

trainDs = subset(sds,trainIdx);
trainLabels = labels(trainIdx);

Obtain the features for the signals in the training signalDatastore using the helper function getDLFeatures listed at the bottom of the example. Each signal in the training signalDatastore has 146484 samples and the helper function returns a 292-by-56 matrix. The framing process reduces the number of samples to train the network by a factor of 9. If the signals are fed into the LSTM network directly (as shown in Figure a.), the network needs to learn the long-term dependencies among 146484 samples. In contrast, after the framing and feature extraction process (as seen in Figure b.), the LSTM network needs to learn the long-term dependencies from a sequence of features over 292 time instances, a significantly lower number than the original time sequence length. As a result, the LSTM network needs less complexity (less number of hidden units) and less time to train and perform successful classification.

trainFeatures = getDLFeatures(trainDs,timeDLFE,freqDLFE,timeFreqDLFE);

Train the network using the training features and their corresponding labels.

numFeatures = size(trainFeatures{1},2);
numClasses = 3;

layers = [ ...
options = trainingOptions("adam", ...
    Shuffle="every-epoch", ...    
    Plots="training-progress", ...
    MaxEpochs=80, ...

net = trainnet(trainFeatures,trainLabels,layers,"crossentropy",options);

Use 30% of the data in the datastore for testing purposes. Follow the same workflow to obtain test features.

testDs = subset(sds,testIdx);
testLabels = labels(testIdx);
testFeatures = getDLFeatures(testDs,timeDLFE,freqDLFE,timeFreqDLFE);

Use the trained network to classify the signals in the test dataset and analyze the accuracy of the network.

scores = minibatchpredict(net,testFeatures);
classNames = categories(labels);
predTest = scores2label(scores,classNames);

cm = confusionchart(testLabels,predTest, ...

Figure contains an object of type ConfusionMatrixChart.

Calculate the classifier accuracy.

accuracy = trace(cm.NormalizedValues)/sum(cm.NormalizedValues,"all");
fprintf("The classification accuracy on the test partition is %2.1f%%",accuracy*100)
The classification accuracy on the test partition is 100.0%


This example uses multidomain signal feature extraction together with an SVM classifier and an LSTM deep learning network for motor bearing fault detection.


[1] Cheng, Cheng, Guijun Ma, Yong Zhang, Mingyang Sun, Fei Teng, Han Ding, and Ye Yuan. "A Deep Learning-based Remaining Useful Life Prediction Approach for Bearings." IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 25, no. 3 (2020): 1243-1254., doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2020.2971503.

[2] Riaz, Saleem, Hassan Elahi, Kashif Javaid, and Tufail Shahzad. "Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery - A Literature Survey." Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 5, no. 1 (2017): 103-110.

[3] Caesarendra, Wahyu, and Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo. "A Review of Feature Extraction Methods in Vibration-based Condition Monitoring and Its Application for Degradation Trend Estimation of Low-speed Slew Bearing." Machines 5, no. 4 (2017): 21.

[4] Tian, Jing, Carlos Morillo, Michael H. Azarian, and Michael Pecht. "Motor Bearing Fault Detection Using Spectral Kurtosis-based Feature Extraction Coupled With K-nearest Neighbor Distance Analysis." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 63, no. 3 (2015): 1793-1803.

[5] Li, Yifan, Xin Zhang, Zaigang Chen, Yaocheng Yang, Changqing Geng, and Ming J. Zuo. "Time-frequency Ridge Estimation: An Effective Tool for Gear and Bearing Fault Diagnosis at Time-varying Speeds." Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 189 (2023): 110108.

getDLFeatures Helper Function

This function obtains the features for training deep learning network.

function features = getDLFeatures(sds,timeDLFE,freqDLFE,timeFreqDLFE)
%   This function is only intended support examples in the Signal
%   Processing Toolbox. It may be changed or removed in a future release.
timeFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)timeDLFE.extract(x(:)));
freqFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)freqDLFE.extract(x(:)));
timeFreqFeatureDs = transform(sds,@(x)timeFreqDLFE.extract(x(:)));

combineDs = combine(timeFeatureDs,freqFeatureDs,timeFreqFeatureDs);
combineDs = transform(combineDs,@(x){squeeze(x)});
features = readall(combineDs,UseParallel=true);

See Also



Related Topics